With which measures can I reduce either the probability of occurrence and/or the effects of a risk limit. It is a question of both avoiding an emergency and avoiding the consequences of an emergency that has occurred.
Which emergency plans should I be able to pull "out of the drawer" in case of an acute threat.
These questions are dealt with under the premise that (if available and useful) technical tools priority than organisational measures . With higher priority because organizations consist of people who have to be trained repeatedly and who, from experience, can make mistakes or fail completely in extreme situations / stress.
Identification / purchasing / use of technical solutions
- Identification of possible technical tools
- Evaluation of the benefit or the "cost-benefit-effect"
- Do we have sufficient practical experiencein using the tools, which possible measures can be evaluated?
- Are there any proven methodologies?
- Purchasing / tendering
- Testing of the effects, execution of exercises, trial runs, tests
- Regular check of alternative / new technologies and their effects (advantages and disadvantages compared to established systems)
Identification / deployment of organizational solutions
- From the degree of risk and also the organizational necessity ("there is no technical solution here") a risk organization resptively a risk management structure has to be planned and implemented
- Identification of possible solutions, necessary behaviours
- Development, sensitization and training (Certification)
- Regular and repeated trial runs and incident drills (announced and unannounced)
- Repetition, if relevant conditions change, but at least one refresh every 2 to 3 years > adaptation of existing concepts
- Coordination / training with security services and police, fire brigade etc.
Layer of Protection Analyses
After the "prevention tools" (layers of protection) have been identified, the effects are evaluated by means of layer of protection Analysis (LOPA).
Discussion of the accepted residual risk
- As unusual as it may sound, there is no such thing as 100% certainty. A discussion that is rather unusual in many societies, and that takes place only in some countries (e.g. Switzerland / Netherlands) with a completely different tradition, is the quantified statement of the "socially reasonable Residual risks".
- Transferred to e.g. public institutions: What is "maximal acceptable" for our population (ethically, morally, health-wise, economically, enviromental etc.)
- Transferred to companies: What can be expected of the company in economic and functional terms, with what effort and expense do I focus on what risk. What risk am I prepared to "bear" in the event of occurrence.
Hedging of the residual risk (e.g. through insurance)
- Which consequences can / must be legally or ethically and morally covered by insurance?
- Check of liability and duty of care of the employer / operator / owner / event organizer
- Identification and agreement of suitable insurance packages (international)